Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma Tumors

Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors

Stages

The process used to find out if cancer has spread from where it began to other parts of the body is called staging. There is no standard staging system for Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. The results of the tests and procedures done to diagnose Ewing sarcoma family of tumors are used to group the tumors into localized or metastatic.

Localized Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors

The cancer is found in the bone or soft tissue in which the cancer began and may have spread to nearby tissue, including lymph nodes. Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors The cancer has spread from the bone or soft tissue in which the cancer began to other parts of the body. In Ewing tumor of bone, the cancer most often spreads to the lung, other bones, and bone marrow. The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:
  • Through tissue— Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
  • Through the lymph system– Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
  • Through the blood— Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.

Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors

Recurrent Ewing sarcoma family of tumors is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the tissues where it first started or in another part of the body.

Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors

Three types of standard treatment are used:

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is part of the treatment for all patients with Ewing tumors. It is usually given first, to shrink the tumor before treatment with surgery or radiation therapy. It may also be given to kill any tumor cells that have spread to other parts of the body. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type of the cancer being treated and whether it is found at the place it first formed only or whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Systemic chemotherapy— When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body. Regional chemotherapy— When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas. Combination chemotherapy is treatment using more than one anticancer drug.

Surgery

Surgery is usually done to remove cancer that is left after chemotherapy or radiation therapy. When possible, the entire tumor is removed by surgery. Tissue and bone that are removed may be replaced with a graft using tissue and bone taken from another part of the patient’s body or a donor, or with an implant such as artificial bone.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery so less tissue needs to be removed. It may also be used to kill tumor cells that are left after surgery or chemotherapy. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type of the cancer being treated and whether it is found at the place it first formed only or whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.

Clinical trials

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.

Chemotherapy with stem cell transplant

Stem cell transplant is a way of replacing blood -forming cells destroyed by chemotherapy. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. After chemotherapy is completed, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body’s blood cells.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Angiogenesis inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are two types of targeted therapies being studied in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors are substances that block the growth of new blood vessels. In cancer treatment, angiogenesis inhibitors prevent the growth of new blood vessels needed for tumors to grow.
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.

Follow-up

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging. Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups. Contact us to request an appointment with one of the oncologists at Diablo Valley Oncology discuss the treatment options available to treat your bone cancer.