Different types of treatment are available for patients with metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials.
Two types of standard treatment are used:
Surgery may include neck dissection. There are different types of neck dissection, based on the amount of tissue that is removed.
- Radical neck dissection: Surgery to remove tissues in one or both sides of the neck between the jawbone and the collarbone, including the following:
- All lymph nodes.
- The jugular vein.
- Muscles and nerves that are used for face, neck, and shoulder movement, speech, and swallowing.
The patient may need physical therapy of the throat, neck, shoulder, and/or arm after radical neck dissection. Radical neck dissection may be used when cancer has spread widely in the neck.
- Modified radical neck dissection: Surgery to remove all the lymph nodes in one or both sides of the neck without removing the neck muscles. The nerves and/or the jugular vein may be removed.
- Partial neck dissection: Surgery to remove some of the lymph nodes in the neck. This is also called selective neck dissection.
Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of surgery, some patients may be given radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after surgery, to lower the risk of recurrence of cancer is called adjuvant therapy.
is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are following types of radiation therapy.
External radiation therapy
uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer.
Internal radiation therapy
uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)
is a type of 3-dimensional (3-D) radiation therapy that uses a computer to make pictures of the size and shape of the tumor. Thin beams of radiation of different intensities (strengths) are aimed at the tumor from many angles. This type of radiation therapy is less likely to cause dry mouth, trouble swallowing, and damage to the skin.
Radiation therapy to the neck may change the way the thyroid gland works. The gland will be tested before treatment and at regular checkups after treatment.
is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).
Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy
Hyperfractionated radiation therapy is radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into small doses and the treatments are given more than once a day.
A clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working.
Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging.
Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/metastatic-squamous-neck/patient